Variable Power Supply Using Fixed Regulator
David Kwaku Celestin - Ghana, West Africa
Email : [email protected]
This is a similar power supply that I used to power my FM Transmitter. After suffering long
problems with mains hum, this design using a pi filtered C-L-C approach. This circuit offers
excellent ripple rejection.
T1 Transformer 10:1 Secondary 24V @ 2A
BR1 Bridge Rectifier 50V PIV 2A rating
C1 4700u (35V)
C3 2200u (35V)
C5 4.7u (25)
R1 10k potentiometer
L1 see text
U1 7805 N.B. This may be changed for different output voltages e.g. 7812 for higher output voltage
ZD1 15V zener @ 1.3W
Looking at the above schematic, the specific inductance of the ferrite (core)is important.
A core should be chosen to work within the specific frequency as stated by the manufacturer.
L1 is a powder core and has 32 turns of 0.75mm wire.
The transformer has a 240V primary and has a secondary rated 24V at 2A. The bridge rectifier
contains 4 diodes, their current rating needs to be high with respect to the transformers
output current; if not the current may damage the diodes. I used MR751 which is rated 6 amps,
but another good choice is 1N5400. C1 is the mainfiltering capacitor, the supply is further
smoothed by the combination of L1 and C3. C2 and C4 are decoupling capacitors; their action
further reduce ripple factor.
The regulator, U1 utilizes the action of zener diode ZD1 which is in parallel with the
potentiometer, R1. The tuning action of R1 produces a variable regulator output. The output
voltage is variable from the regulator output to the regulator output plus the zener voltage.
E.G. A 7805 regulator and 10V zener give an output adjustable from 5 to 15 Volts. The regulator
may be changed to provide different output voltages as may the zener. the zener should be
rated a minimum of 1.3 Watts. All the parts should be available at local electronic shops.
Formula for calculating Ripple Factor in Filters:
Φ = Ripple Factor
F = frequency of supply in Hz
L = inductance of L1 in uH
C1 = capacitance of C1 in uF
C3 = capacitance of C3 in uF
RL = load resistance in ohms