RS422 is a balanced serial interface for the transmission of digital data. The advantage of a balanced signal is the greater immunity to noise. The EIA describes RS422 as a DTE to DCE interface for point-to-point connections.
37 pin D-SUB male connector at the DTE (Computer)
RS422 was designed for greater distances and higher Baud rates than RS232. In its simplest form, a pair of converters from RS232 to RS422 (and back again) can be used to form an "RS232 extension cord." Data rates of up to 100K bits / second and distances up to 4000 Ft. can be accommodated with RS422. RS422 is also specified for multi-drop (party-line) applications where only one driver is connected to, and transmits on, a "bus" of up to 10 receivers.
Both RS-422 and RS-485 use a twisted-pair wire (i.e. 2 wires) for each signal. They both use the same differential drive with identical voltage swings: 0 to +5V. The main difference between RS-422 and RS-485 is that while RS-422 is strictly for point-to-point communications (and the driver is always enabled), RS-485 can be used for multidrop systems.
Since the basic differential receivers of RS-423-A and RS422-A are electrically identical, it is possible to interconnect an equipment using RS423-A receivers and generators on one side of the interface with an equipment using RS422-A generators and receivers on the other side of the interface, if the leads of the receivers and generators are properly configured to accommodate such an arrangement and the cable is not terminated.
The interface is normally terminated on a 4 wire screw block or on a Sub-D37 (RS449), but other interfaces are not uncommon.
RS449 gets it"s blazing speed from the fact that, unlike RS232 which uses signals with reference to ground, it"s receivers look for the difference between two wires. Now the secret, by twisting these two wires any stray noise picked up on one wire will be picked up on the other, because both wires pick up the same noise the differential just shifts in voltage level with reference to ground, but does not change with respect to each other. Remember the receivers are only looking at the difference in voltage level of each wire to the other not to ground. This is what makes all the new wire interfaces work, V.35, RS530, 10baseT, etc.
The biggest problem faced is how the cables are made
The differential signals for RS449 are labeled as either "A and B" or "+ and -". In the case of RS449 wire A or + does not connect to B or -. Wire A always connects to A and B connects to B or + to + and - to -. If you do cross the wires you just inverted the data or clock in your interface. I have never seen any piece of equipment damaged from this, but they don"t work this way either.
37 pin D-SUB female connector at the DCE (Modem)